NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science CBSE 2022-23 - Free PDF Download
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Chapterwise NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science
NCERT complete solution for class 10 Science
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Here are chapter Wise NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science:
Here, we are providing the complete chapter-wise NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science. Keeping in mind the language barrier, we have provided these solutions in two languages: English and Hindi.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations
Chemical reactions are the processes in which new substances with new properties are formed. Chemical reactions involve the breaking of bonds between the atoms of the reacting substances and the making of new bonds between the atoms of formed products. During chemical reactions, a large variety of rearrangements of atoms can take place to produce new substances having entirely different properties. The rusting of iron objects on exposure to moist air, the changing of milk into curd and the digestion of food in our body are all examples of chemical reactions.
The following observations can help us to determine whether a chemical reaction has taken place or not:
- Change in state
- Change in colour
- Evolution of a gas
- Change in temperature
The method of representing a chemical reaction with the help of symbols and formulae of the substances involved in it is known as a chemical equation. Let us take an example to understand the meaning of a chemical equation clearly.
When a magnesium ribbon is burnt in oxygen, it gets converted to magnesium oxide. The above chemical equation for this reaction can be represented in word form as:
The substances that undergo chemical change are called reactants. The new substances formed during the reaction are called the products. In the above reaction, magnesium and oxygen are reactants and magnesium oxide is the product.
The reactants are written on the left-hand side with a plus sign (+) between them. Similarly, products are written on the right-hand side with a plus sign (+) between them. The arrow is put between reactants and products and the arrowhead is pointed towards the products and shows the direction of the reactions.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts
Acids & Bases are two important classes of compounds which we come across in chemistry. Initially, the substances which are sour to taste were termed Acids. The name acid was derived from the Latin word ‘acid’. Similarly, the Bases or alkalis were characterized by their bitter taste and their slippery touch.
Salt is another important category of chemical compounds. The term ‘salt’ covers all electrovalent compounds having positive & negative radicals formed by the reactions of corresponding acids and bases
Substances with a sour taste are regarded as acids. Lemon juice, Vinegar, grapefruit juice and spoilt milk etc., taste sour since they are acidic. Many substances can be identified as acids based on their taste, but some of the acids like sulphuric acid have very strong action on the skin which means that they are corrosive. In such cases, it would be according to the modern definition-
An acid may be defined as a substance which releases one or more H+ ions in an aqueous solution. Acids are mostly obtained from natural sources. Based on their source acids are of two types-
- Mineral Acids:
Acids which are obtained from rocks and minerals are called mineral acids. For Example HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 etc.,
- Organic acids
Acids which are present in animals and plants are known as organic acids. For example formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH) etc.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals ELEMENT
An element is a pure substance which cannot be subdivided into two or more new substances by any means. Chemists have found 114 elements which exist in nature. Example: Silver, Iron, Oxygen, Nitrogen, etc.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
It was found that there was a wide variation in the properties of elements. Hence these were further classified into three categories, i.e. metals, non-metals, and metalloids based on the properties they exhibit.
|METALS e.g. Sodium, Copper, Gold
|NON-METALS e.g. Carbon, Nitrogen, Helium
|Metalloids e.g. Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony
- OCCURRENCE OF METALS AND NON-METALS
The upper surface of Earth’s crust is made of sand and silicates. The most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust is aluminium and the second most abundant metal is iron. The most abundant non–metal in the earth’s crust is oxygen followed by silicon.
Metals are found in the earth’s crust as well as in seawater. With the notable exception of gold which exists as an element, most metals occur naturally as compounds in the form of metal oxides, metal sulphides or metal carbonates. These compounds are called minerals. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that has a definite composition and crystalline structure. The minerals from which metals can be extracted economically and profitably are known as ores.
Non-Metals occur in the free (native) state as well as in the combined state.
- Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds
Organic chemistry is a sub-discipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. These compounds may contain any number of other elements, including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon, and Sulphur.
Organic compounds are structurally diverse. The range of applications of organic compounds is enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosives, and paints. They form the basis of almost all earthly life processes (with very few exceptions).
Organic compounds may be classified in a variety of ways. One major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms, e.g., organometallic compounds, which feature bonds between carbon and a metal, and organophosphorus compounds, which feature bonds between carbon and phosphorus.
Another distinction, based upon the size of organic compounds, distinguishes between small molecules and polymers.
Natural compounds refer to those that are produced by plants or animals. Many of these are still extracted from natural sources because they would be far too expensive to be produced artificially. Examples include most sugars, some alkaloids and terpenoids, certain nutrients such as vitamin B12, and, in general, those natural products with large or stereoisometrically complicated molecules present in reasonable concentrations in living organisms.
Further compounds of prime importance in biochemistry are antigens, carbohydrates, enzymes, hormones, lipids and fatty acids, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, peptides and amino acids, lectins, vitamins, and fats and oils.
Compounds that are prepared by reaction of other compounds are referred to as "synthetic". They may be either compounds that already is found in plants or animals or those that do not occur naturally.
Most polymers (a category that includes all plastics and rubbers) are organic synthetic or semi-synthetic compounds.
- Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements
Around the year 1800, only 30 elements were known. To date, 114 elements have been discovered of which, some occur in the free state and some in the combined state. Earlier it was not difficult to study them separately, but as the number increased it became difficult to study the properties of all of them separately.
To sort out this problem, various attempts were made to classify the elements, which we will discuss in brief in this lesson.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes
All the plants and animals [Including human beings] are alive or living. The characteristics of living things are as follows:
- Living things can move by themselves.
- Living things can grow.
- Living things need food, air and water.
- Living things can respond to changes around them. They are sensitive.
- Living things respire, excrete and reproduce.
The basic functions performed by living organisms to maintain their life on this earth are called life processes. The basic life processes common to all living organisms are Nutrition, Respiration, Transport, Excretion, Control and Coordination, Growth, Movement and Reproduction.
“Nutrition” is a process of intake as well as utilization of nutrients by an organism. It also includes the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules and their absorption. Food provides us with energy. It contains different types of nutrients in varying amounts according to the need of our body.
- Chapter 7 Control and Coordination
Control and coordination help to maintain a steady state within an organism in a constantly changing environment. The mechanism of maintaining an internal steady state is called homeostasis. A mountaineer feels a lack of oxygen at a high altitude. To cope with this condition, more RBCs are produced. It is the internal environment (physiologically) that adjusts to the external stress i.e., lack of oxygen. Similarly, mammals are capable of maintaining a constant body temperature. The vital activities of an organism are controlled by the endocrine system and nervous system. In animals, both hormones and neurons are involved in regulating and co-coordinating various vital activities. In plants only chemical (phytohormones) coordination is present.
- Chemical Co-Ordination in Plants
Living plants have the characteristic of showing some change in their position due to changes in the environment or due to some endogenous causes. Such changes are called movements. These movements are due to sensitivity or irritability of protoplasm. Sensitivity or irritability of protoplasm is characteristic property to perceive and respond to a stimulus. The stimulus may be defined as any change in the external environment which produces a reaction (response) in the plant or plant organ.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 8 How do Organisms Reproduce?
The production of new organisms from the existing organism of the same species is known as reproduction.
- Reproduction is the creation of new living beings. (From existing living beings)
- It involves the transmission of genetic material from the parental generation to the next generation.
- Process of reproduction is essential for the existence and continuity of a species.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
- The similarities and differences among the members of a species are transmitted from parents to offspring.
- The branch of biology that deals with the study of heredity and variations are called Genetics. The term ‘Genetics’ was given by William Bateson in 1906.
- Asexual reproduction involves a single parent. When a single individual reproduces asexually, the resultant two individuals again reproduce to form four individuals.
- All these individuals would be similar, having only minor differences between them. These very minor differences arise due to small inaccuracies in DNA copying.
- Asexual reproduction generates little diversity. If sexual reproduction is involved, greater diversity will be generated.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction
Light is a form of energy. More specifically, light is a general term commonly used to refer to the "visible spectrum", which is the range of wavelengths, (and their corresponding frequencies) that form the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The ranges in wavelengths vary from 380 nm to 750 nm. Each wavelength corresponds to light of one particular colour so the "visible spectrum" range of wavelengths would look something like the block below if each wavelength appeared only once and they were all lined up in order of increasing wavelength.
The term "visible spectrum" means the range of electromagnetic energy that most people (i.e. those with "normal" vision) can see with the naked eye. This is just a small part of a much wider range of energies, many of which we cannot see but some of which are used in other ways, e.g. Radio Waves, Microwaves, Ultra Violet (UV) Light, Infra-Red (IR) Radiation, X-Rays, and other wavelengths such as those used in many different types of modern scanning equipment.
"White Light" is the way humans perceive and refer to our experience of receiving an approx. equal quantity of all the wavelengths (i.e. colours) in the visible spectrum. This explains why there are so many different "shades of white".
That is, when we see "white" we are receiving all the colours in approximately equal amounts - but only approximately.
The combination of wavelengths (colours) received by our eyes usually contains a bit more of some than others, hence some "whites" can appear to be slightly "yellow", some slightly "blue", and so on.
Just as white is not a "spectral colour", neither is black or grey.
- Chapter 11 Human Eye and Colourful World
The ability of an eye to focus on both near and distant objects by adjusting its focal length is called the power of accommodation of an eye.
There are three common refractive defects of vision.
- Myopia or near sightedness.
- Hypermetropia or long-sightedness.
The smallest distance at which an eye can see objects clearly without strain is called the near point of an eye or the least distance of distinct vision. It is 25 cm for a normal eye.
A person with myopia can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly.
The defect can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable focal length.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 12 Electricity
Electrically charged objects have several important characteristics:
- Like charges repel one another; that is, positive repels positive and negative repels negative.
- Unlike charges attract each other; that is, positive attracts negative.
The charge is conserved. A neutral object has no net charge. If the plastic rod and fur are initially neutral, when the rod becomes charged by the fur, a negative charge is transferred from the fur to the rod. The net negative charge on the rod is equal to the net positive charge on the fur.
- Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
Any substance which possesses the following two properties is called a magnet.
- It attracts small pieces of iron towards itself.
- It always comes to rest in the north-south direction when suspended freely on Earth.
Lodestone and magnetites are natural magnets because they are found in nature.
Artificial magnets are prepared by man to be used at any time and any place. These magnets are much stronger than lodestones.
- Properties of Magnet:
- Attractive: A magnet attracts small pieces of iron, nickel, cobalt, etc. The magnetic force of attraction is maximum in small regions near the ends of the magnet. These are called the poles of the magnet.
- Directive: A freely suspended magnet always points in the north-south direction. The end pointing towards the north is called the north-seeking pole or the North Pole. The other end that points towards the south are called the south seeking pole or the South Pole.
- Law of magnetic polar: There are two poles in a magnet north and south polar. Like poles repel i.e. south repels south and North repels North
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 14 Sources of Energy
Chapter 14 Sources of Energy consist of different forms of energy and their sources are discussed in this chapter. A few important subtopics covered in this chapter are
- Ideal source of energy
- Conventional sources of energy: Fossil fuels, thermal power plants, hydropower plants
- Biomass and wind energy as major energy resources
- Non-Conventional Sources of Energy: Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, Nuclear Energy
- Renewable and non-renewable sources of energy and their availability in the long run
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 15 Our Environment
This is a relatively easy and important chapter it consists of the Ecosystem and its components
Food chains and webs, Ozone Layer and its depletion Managing the garbage we Produce.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources
Chapter 16 Management of Natural Resources consists of subtopics like Natural resources and their management, Management of forests and wildlife, Dams, Water harvesting,
Management of fossil fuels; Coal and Petroleum
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Marking Scheme of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapters For 2023
|Chemical Substances - Nature & Behaviour
|World of living
|Effects of Current
|20 Marks will be Internal Assessment
|Type of Questions
|Objective Type (1 mark each)
|Short Answer Type (3 marks each)
|Long Answer Type (5 marks each)
|Analysing & Evaluating
Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science CBSE 2022-23 - Free PDF Download
. How to use NCERT solutions for class 10 Science?
Ans. NCERT solutions for class 10 science must be used for reference purposes and are not used for completing the homework. One must understand that the concept of the chapter must be clear before solving the questions given in the exercise of the NCERT textbook. Read the chapter given in the NCERT textbook try to make the notes of the chapter and start solving the questions given in the textbook by yourself, if you feel a problem in any question while solving then only take the reference from NCERT solutions for class 10 Science.
. Is the NCERT textbook enough to score good marks in Class 10 Science?
Ans. NCERT textbook is recommended book by the CBSE board, and it covers the entire syllabus of the CBSE final exam. So NCERT textbooks are sufficient for your board exam. Solve all the questions given in the NCERT textbook with the help of home tution NCERT solutions for class 10 science, questions are asked directly from the NCERT textbook in the final exam.
. Q3. How many chapters are covered in the solution pdf?
Ans. We provide you with the complete solution to all the 16 chapters of class 10 NCERT Science.
. Q4- Where will I get NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science complete PDF?
Ans. Here at Home-Tuitions.com,we have provided the complete NCERT Solution for Class 10 Science in PDF form in both languages. You can download these solutions in your language.