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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – Chapter-wise PDF Download

Undoubtedly, Class 12 is the most important year in a student's life. It is also possibly the most difficult time of a student's life, with so much on their plate, from board exams to school exams to entrance examinations. The significance of class 12 cannot be overstated, as it encompasses more than just grades and test scores. Class 12 is a period of testing for kids, and it serves to bring out the best in them.

Wondering how to prepare for board exams and Neet UGC medical entrance exams parallelly, you can blindly trust NCERT solution, the utmost and most valuable book that will clear all your minor doubts and queries.

Class 12 Biology NCERT Textbooks Chapters – Free PDF Download

Experts recommend NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology for preparing for the CBSE Class 12th Board Exams. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has created NCERT Solutions for Class 12th Biology, consisting of 16 chapters for schools that follow the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) pattern. Reproduction in Organisms, Genetics and Evolution, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology and its Applications, Principles of Inheritance and Variation, Human Health and Diseases, Biotechnology Principles and Processes, Strategies in the Enhancement of Food Production, Ecosystem and Environmental Issues, and Ecology and Environment are all covered in the CBSE Class 12th Biology Solutions.

Syllabus of NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology (Updated 2022-23)

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Solutions for Class 12th Biology consists of 16 chapters for schools that follow the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) pattern.

  1. Reproduction in Organisms
  2. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
  3. Human reproduction
  4. Reproductive health
  5. Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  6. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  7. Genetics and Evolution
  8. Human Health and Diseases
  9. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  10. Microbes in human welfare solutions
  11. Biotechnology Principles and Processes
  12. Biotechnology and its Applications
  13. Organism and populations
  14. Ecosystem Solutions
  15. Biodiversity and Conservation
  16. Environmental Issues

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Biology NCERT answers class 12 outperforms all other instructional resources. Extensive explanations, thorough solutions, descriptive pictures, and more are all available. Furthermore, we provide correct and up-to-date answers to all NCERT textbook exercise questions.

Students can study at their own pace with ebooks, notes, and pdf that can be downloaded.

Advantages of choosing Home tuition for NCERT Solutions for Class 12

  • Experienced teachers conducted research and wrote the book.
  • In each chapter, there are new value-based questions with answers.
  • Jargon-free and simple language
  • Content is based on the CBSE curriculum, and it covers a wide range of essential ideas.
  • Exemplary problems that have been solved

Chapter-wise brief introduction on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology consist of detailed step-by-step explanations of all the questions asked in the NCERT textbook exercise. We have prepared the solutions as per the CBSE requirements.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in the Organism

Every living organism present on earth has to die except a unicellular organism.

To continue their species or race organism have to give rise to offspring of their kind. Plants and animals have a limited life span after which they die naturally.

In this chapter, we will discuss different modes of reproduction in different organisms.

Reproduction is broadly classified into two categories that are asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is fast means of reproduction specially adapted by an organism with a simple body design while sexual reproduction is a slow and complex method of reproduction adapted by the higher organism.

In sexual reproduction, gametes formation is involved by two different parents which leads to variation among offspring.

In this chapter, you will get an overview of different types of asexual reproduction. This chapter will also enable you to understand different events of reproduction and post-fertilisation events.

This chapter is directly linked with chapters 2,3 and 4.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 2 Sexual reproduction in Flowering Plants

This chapter deals with the description of different processes involved in sexual reproduction in flowering plants.

In flowering plants, the flower is an embryological and physiological marvel. The flower contains the sex organs stamen and pistil. These sex organs can be present on the same flower in a bisexual flower or two different flowers in monoecious plants while on two different flowers on different plants in dioecious plants.

The formation of pollen grain takes place in the process of microsporogenesis and the process of formation of the egg takes place through the process of megasporogenesis.

After the formation of gametes in anther and ovule process of pollination begins. Pollination is the mechanism by which male and female gametes are brought together for fertilisation.

We also discuss the post-fertilization events in flowering plants. Important events called double fertilization are restricted to angiosperms only. Anton Von Leeuwenhoek was the person to discover polyembryony in Citrus.

At the end of this chapter, you will get an insight into Apomixis which is the phenomenon of the formation of seeds without fertilisation. This process is of very economic importance to farmers.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction

In the reproduction in the organism chapter, you came to know that humans are sexually reproducing and viviparous. Different events of sexual reproduction in humans begin after puberty. In human females beginning of the reproductive stage is marked by the menstrual flow.

In this chapter, you will go through detailed explanations of the reproductive structure of males and females. we will also go through the process of gametogenesis in males (spermatogenesis) and females (oogenesis).

All the events are controlled by different male and female hormones like testosterone, estrogen, LH etc.

Male gametes produced are much larger in number than female gametes as a large number of sperm got died while moving to the egg in the reproductive tract of the female.

Fertilization is followed by post-fertilisation events like embryogenesis, implantation, gastrulation, parturition, lactation etc.

There are remarkable differences between the reproductive events in the male and in the female, for example, sperm formation continues even in old men, but the formation of ovum ceases in women around the age of fifty years.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), reproductive health means total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social.

In India, the population has increased at an alarming rate after independence. Overpopulation leads to various consequences such as lack of quality of food, social life, lack of good education etc.

India became the first country in the world to launch a family programming program in 1951.

In this chapter, we will learn different methods of contraception such as barrier methods, chemical methods, and surgical methods. Contraception methods are used to avoid pregnancy or to create a gap between two pregnancies.

Natural methods such as lactational amenorrhoea and periodic abstinence are the safest method but have a high chance of failure.

We will also understand about different types of sexually transmitted diseases which can be caught due to unprotected sexual contact by an unknown partner.

We will also get an insight into different methods of in-vitro fertilisation like GIFT, ZIFT etc.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principal of Inheritance and Variation

Genetics is the branch of science that deals with the study of inheritance and variation. Mendel is known as the father of genetics.

The work of Mendel and others who followed him gave us an idea of inheritance patterns. As ‘factors’ represent the genetic basis of inheritance, understanding the structure of genetic material and the structural basis of genotype and phenotype.

Variation is the degree to which progeny differ from their parents.

This chapter particularly revolves around the work of Mendel which provides us with the laws of inheritance. During our study in this chapter, we will understand allelic and non-allelic gene interaction. Mendel’s law of segregation is known as the law of purity of gametes and is a universal law.

We will also learn about the chromosomal basis of inheritance given by Sutton and Boveri which was later proved by T.H Morgan on drosophila.

We will also learn about mutation, sex determination in a different organism, and different types of genetic diseases both Mendelian and non-Mendelian diseases such as Down’s syndrome etc.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance

The entire body of molecular biology was a consequent development with major contributions from Watson, Crick, Nirenberg, Khorana, Kornberg, Benzer, Monod, Brenner, etc.

Awareness in the areas of molecular genetics, structural biology and bioinformatics have enriched our understanding of the molecular basis of evolution.

In this chapter, we will discuss the structure and function of DNA along with the unit of inheritance ‘Gene’. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the two types of nucleic acids found in living systems. DNA acts as the genetic material in most organisms. While RNA mainly acts as a messenger. RNA also act as an adaptor and catalyst.

In this chapter, we are going to discuss the structure of DNA, its replication, the process of making RNA from DNA (transcription), the genetic code that determines the sequences of amino acids in proteins, the process of protein synthesis (translation) and elementary basis of their regulation.

In the last section, the essentials of human genome sequencing which is the result of the human genome project and its consequences along with DNA fingerprinting will also be discussed.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Evolution

Evolutionary biology deals with the study of life forms on earth. Evolution is the change in the flora and fauna of earth with time. Charles Darwin is known as the father of evolutionary biology.

In this chapter, we will study the origin of life and evolution of life forms or biodiversity on planet earth in the context of the evolution of earth and against the background of the evolution of the universe itself.

The age of the Earth is about 4.5 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least 3.5 billion years ago. Evolution does not attempt to explain the origin of life, but it does explain how early lifeforms evolved into the complex ecosystem that we see today.

The modern understanding of evolution began with the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.

This chapter gives us an insight into different theories of evolution, convergent and divergent evolution, adaptation, genetic drift etc.

Also, we will study Hardey Winberg’s equilibrium methods of population.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Human health and diseases

Health is the state of complete well-being that is physical, social, economic, and emotional. Merely absence of disease is not considered Health.

A balanced diet, personal hygiene, and regular exercise are very important to maintain good health. Yoga has been practiced since time immemorial to achieve physical and mental health.

As we know on our earth different types of microorganisms are present which are useful as well harmful for us as they (pathogens) cause various types of diseases in our body. Disease means a state of discomfort in our body.

Diseases can be broadly grouped into infectious and non-infectious. Diseases that are easily transmitted from one person to another, are called infectious diseases. For example AIDS, TB etc.

In this chapter, we will also discuss in detail how our immune system protects us from different disease-causing organisms. Our immune cells produce special proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins to fight infection.

we will also get insight into different types of diseases their means of spread, causative agents, organs affected, and their cure and prevention along with their immunisation or vaccination.

At the end of this chapter, we will discuss different types of social evils which have adverse effects on our bodies, especially on our young generation such as alcohol and drug abuse.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production

As we all know that world population has increased tremendously since 1950 was only around 2.5 billion as of now which is more than 7 billion.

Since the percentage of land used for the cultivation of crops is limited, so we have to find out ways to produce grains to feed this alarming population.

In this chapter, we will discuss all the processes and methods involved in the improvement of our food resources.

Crossbreeding or hybridisation are the traditional methods of improving a variety of crops and breeds of cattle.

New modern methods of improvement of food resources include embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques and genetic engineering.

we will get detailed information about animal husbandry and agriculture practices.

Dr. Swaminathan is known as the father of the green revolution in India.

In this chapter, you will see that crops and animal brbreedsre improved for quality or product, disease resistance, nutrient enrichment (Biofortification) etc.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Microbes In Human Welfare

Microbes are very small entities that we can not see with our naked eyes. These are useful as well as harmful to us. This chapter particularly focuses on the useful impact of microbes on human life.

Microbes are present everywhere like in the air, water, deep hydrothermal went at 100 degrees Celsius etc.

Microbes are categorized into bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses.

In this chapter, we will see that bacteria and fungi are used in sewage treatment plants. Fungi-like yeast is used widely in the baking industry.

Not only this from microbes we get certain medications like antibiotics, blood cholesterol-lowering agents, antifungal medicines etc.

Microbes are also used for household purposes like the production of Curd By LAB bacteria, Vinegar by acetobacter acetic etc.

You will also get an insight into how microbes are used in cleaning the environment by digesting pollutants such as oil spills, dead remains etc. This is called ‘Bioremediation’.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principal and Process

Biotechnology deals with techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans. According to the European Federation of Biotechnology, definition of biotechnology is ‘The integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services.

In this chapter, we will discuss different principles and techniques, and tools of biotechnology. Principals include chemical engineering and genetic engineering.

We will be getting knowledge about vectors, restriction enzymes, Ori site, PCR and bioprocessing fermenters, and upstream and downstream processing.

Also, we will get a detailed analysis of Recombinant DNA technology and DNA fingerprinting.

NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and Its Application

As you would have learned from the previous chapter that biotechnology essentially deals with industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and biologicals using genetically modified microbes, fungi, plants, and animals.

In this chapter detailed applications of biotechnology that are useful for human is described.

The applications of biotechnology include therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation, waste treatment, and energy production.

We will understand how human beings have used biotechnology to produce a genetically modified crop with values like resistance again insect pests e.g Bt Cotton and Bt brinjal are the crops that are resistant to insect borers.

Biotechnology has also been employed for the successful production of insulin on large scale for diabetic patients. Gene therapy has been employed to treat heredity diseases like ADA.

The first clinical gene therapy was given in 1990 to a 4-year old4-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. This enzyme is crucial for the immune system to function.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organism and Population

You have already learned in previous classes that Ecology is a subject that studies the interactions among organisms and between the organism and its physical (abiotic) environment.

In the chapter living world, you came to know that our earth is having diverse forms of living organisms present in different areas of the art.

Ecology is concerned with four levels of biological organization – organisms, populations, communities, and biomes. In this chapter, we explore ecology at organismic and population levels.

In this chapter,r we will study how organisms are adapted to different environmental conditions. The relationships between organism such as symbiotic relationship in which organism lives in mutual association with each other.

Plants have evolved diverse morphological and chemical defenses against herbivory.

Populations have attributes that individual organisms do not- birth rates and death rates, sex ratio and age. The proportion of different age groups of males and females in a population is often presented graphically as an age pyramid.

Also, we will learn the description of how organisms are adapted to different environmental factors such as water, temperature, and soil.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem

Term ecosystem refers to the system in which living organisms interact with other biotic and abiotic components of the environment.

A.G Tensely coined the term Ecosystem. The ecosystem is regarded as the functional unit of the ecosystem. It may vary greatly in size from a small pond to a large ocean. Many ecologists even considered the entire biophase as a global ecosystem.

Crop fields and aquariums may be considered as man mad ecosystems.

We will look at the structure of the ecosystem, to appreciate the input (productivity), transfer of energy (food chain/web, nutrient cycling) and output gradation and energy loss).

We will also study aboutionsha IP-like cycles, food chains, and the food web that is created as a result of these energy flows within the system and their inter-relationship.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Its Conservation

As we are already aware from our previous knowledge that our earth is rich in a great diversity of plants and animals including microbes.

Biodiversity is the term popularized by sociobiologist Edward Wilson to describe the combined diversity at all levels of biological organisation.

In this chapter, we are going to discuss the distribution of species in different regions of the earth. Tropical regions have maximum diversity while the diversity decreases moving towards the pole.

We would be surprised to know that out of 10 animals 7 are insects.

Although India has only 2.4 percent of the world’s land area, its share of the global species diversity is an impressive 8.1 percent. That is what makes our country one of the 12 mega diversity countries of the world.

Alexander von Humboldt observed that within a region species richness increased with increasing explored area but only up to a limit.

Due to overexploitation and habitat loss, a large number of plant and animal species have been extinct from the earth and many are facing the threat of extinction.

In this chapter at the end, we will also understand the direct and indirect benefits of such great diversity to humans. To continue benefits from such diversity, we need to conserve them by Insitu or Exsitu means.

Many conservationists like Amrita Devi had laid their life for the sake of the conservation of forests. The historic Convention on Biological Diversity (‘The Earth Summit) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Environmental Issues

Although human beings have achieved advancement and development their activities have affected the environment to a great extent which leads to various deleterious effects such as loss of biodiversity, and pollution of land, water, and air.

Pollution is any undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, land, water, or soil.

The need of the hour is to check the degradation and depletion of our precious natural resources and pollution without halting the process of development.

In this chapter, we are going to deal with various kinds of environmental pollution and the measures taken by the government and other agencies to curb them.

Global warming has become one of the major concerns of the decades as it is causing the melting of ice caps.

India has passed the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to protect and improve the quality of our environment.

We will also get an insight into eutrophication, biomagnification etc. along with the contribution of people at the local level to control pollution.



Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – Chapter-wise PDF Download

. Where can I get the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology online?

Most students choose to look out for NCERT Textbook solutions on the internet. Each chapter's solutions are available in PDF format on the home tuition website. Depending on your needs, you can also download the PDF for free and refer to it while studying offline. Suppose you get confused while addressing a problem. In that case, you can quickly consult the solutions on the home tuition website with free access to online video lectures, as it provides a solution for all of the exercises specified in NCERT.

. Why should students opt for home tuition for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology?

NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions by home tuition is the perfect solution for students aiming to score well in their board exams. Qualified subject teachers of home tuition create it per the latest class 12 CBSE Biology Syllabus.

. What is the price for NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology in Home tuition?

Home tuition Aims to provide free of cost NCERT Solutions for Class 12 for all subjects. Curated by subject matter experts, NCERT Solutions can be easily accessed by Students without any fee, and it also provides free online video lectures, all with a free download option.

. How many chapters are there in class 12 Biology NCERT Book?

There are 16 chapters in the Class 12 biology NCERT (CBSE) Book.

  1. Reproduction in Organisms
  2. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
  3. Human reproduction
  4. Reproductive health
  5. Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  6. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  7. Genetics and Evolution
  8. Human Health and Diseases
  9. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  10. Microbes in human welfare solutions
  11. Biotechnology Principles and Processes
  12. Biotechnology and its Applications
  13. Organism and populations
  14. Ecosystem Solutions
  15. Biodiversity and Conservation
  16. Environmental Issues