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Chemistry Topics

List of Important Chemistry Topics

Introduction to Chemistry Topics 

Chemistry is the subject of concepts and their applications this page is created by Home-tution experts and consists of the most important Chemistry Topics. Chemistry Topics covers the basics of the sub-topic which is used in most of the chapters of chemistry. Each Chemistry Topic is explained in detail and covers all information related to the concept with the help of solved examples and questions. Each Chemistry Topics consist of a list of formulas, and concept used to understand the sub-topic of chemistry. 

Class-Wise Chemistry Topics | Classwise list

Key Terms used in chemistry topics

1. Atomic Mass: It is the mass of 1 atom of a substance it is expressed in AMU 

Atomic mass = RAM × 1 amu

2. Gram Atomic Mass: The atomic mass of an element expressed in a gram is called the gram atomic mass of the element. 

3. Molecules: It is the smallest particle of matter which is free existence. Molecules can be further divided into their constituents atoms by physical and chemical processes.

4. Molecular Mass: It is the mass of one molecule

5. Gram Molecular Mass: The molecular mass of a substance expressed in a gram is called the gram–molecular mass of the substance.

6. MOLES: Gram–molecules and gram–atoms are termed as a mole of molecules and a mole of atoms respectively, e.g., 1 gram–a molecule of chlorine and 1 gram atom of chlorine are expressed as 1 mole of Cl2 and 1 mole of Cl respectively.

7. In the formation of a molecule only the outer shell electrons are involved and they are known as valence electrons. 

8. Atoms are usually not capable of free existence but groups of atoms, of the same or different elements exist as one species.

9. Atoms combine to complete their respective octets to acquire the stable inert gas configuration

10. Ionisation Enthalpy of any element is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the outermost shell of an isolated atom in the gaseous phase

11. The higher the value of lattice enthalpy of the resulting ionic compound, the greater will be the stability of the compound. 

12. Electrovalent compounds are soluble in solvents like water which are polar and have a high dielectric constant

13. Ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity in solution or the molten state.

14. Covalent bonds could not explain how atoms are held together.

15. Covalent bonds could not explain the release of energy during the formation of a covalent bond.

16. The bond length increases with an increase in the size of the atoms

17. The bond length decreases with the multiplicity of the bond 

What are the different Branches of Chemistry?

Chemistry consist consists of different brands based on the type of studies and higher chemistry has lots of different branches. In general 5 Branches of Chemistry are Organic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry and Biochemistry. 

Organic Chemistry: Organic Chemistry deals with carbon and its compounds you will learn about the different reactions and used related to carbon and its compounds. The word Organic is one of the most overused in the English language. 

People use it as a derogatory term in phrases like Don’t eat that; it’s not organic.  Of course, there is a precise scientific definition of the word.  In science, organic can be a biological or chemical term. In Biology, it means anything that is living or has lived.  The opposite is Non-Organic.  In Chemistry, an organic compound is one containing Carbon atoms. The opposite term is Inorganic. 

Inorganic Chemistry- Starts with the periodic table and understanding the physical and chemical properties of different elements. You will learn block chemistry in inorganic chemistry. 

Analytical Chemistry: This deals with all types of analysis of chemistry you will get to know the process of finding the name of unknown chemicals and their measurements. 

Physical Chemistry: Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry and covers the application of laws used in chemistry, its numerical chemistry. 

Biochemistry: Lots of chemicals are present in our body our entire body consists of very interesting chemistry biochemistry deals with carbohydrates, proteins, DNA, RNA structure and lots more. 

Characteristics of a Chemical Reaction:

When we heat sugar crystals they melt and on further heating they give steamy vapours, leaving behind a brownish-black mass. On cooling, no sugar crystals appear. Thus change which takes place in heating sugar is a chemical change and the process which brings about this chemical change is called a chemical reaction.

1. In this reaction the substances which take part in bringing about chemical change are called reactants.

2. The substances which are produced as a result of chemical change are called products.

3. These reactions involve breaking and making chemical bonds.

4.Product(s) of the reaction is/are new substances with new name(s) and chemical formula. 

5. It is often difficult or impossible to reverse a chemical reaction.

6.Properties of products formed during a chemical reaction are different from those of the reactants.

7. Apart from heat other forms of energy are light and electricity which are also used in carrying out chemical changes.

Frequently Asked Questions on Chemistry Topics

. What is the salt used in daily life?

Uses of salts in daily life : 

Common salt : (NaCl): It is used amount as table salt. It is used for the preservation of food in pickling. It is used to preserve raw hides. It is used in the manufacture of a chemical such as chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). 

Baking Soda : (NaHCO3): It is used for making baking powder. It is used for preparing antacid tablets, for controlling the acidity of the stomach. 

Washing soda : (Na2CO3.10H2O): It is used by washermen to wash clothes. It is used in the manufacture of glass and caustic soda. It is used in fire extinguishers. It is used in the manufacture of detergents. 

Green vitriol : (FeSO4.7H2O): It is used in making blue inks and incurring leather. 

Plaster of Paris : (CaSO4.1/2H2O): It is used for making statues. It is used for setting broken bones. 

. What is Organic Chemistry?

The word Organic is one of the most overused in the English language. People use it as a derogatory term in phrases like Don’t eat that; it’s not organic.  Of course, there is a precise scientific definition of the word.  In science, organic can be a biological or chemical term. In Biology, it means anything that is living or has lived.  The opposite is Non-Organic.  In Chemistry, an organic compound is one containing Carbon atoms. The opposite term is Inorganic. 

. What is Corrosion?

Corrosion: Corrosion may be defined as the process of slow eating up of the surfaces of certain metals when kept in open for a long time. 

Quite often, when we open the bonnet of a car after a long time, we find a deposit around the terminals of the battery. This is an example of corrosion. The black coating on the surface of silver and the green layer on the surface of copper the examples of corrosion. In the use of iron, corrosion is called rusting. Rust is a chemical substance brown in mass and is formed by the chemical action of moist air (containing O2 and H2O) on iron. It is an oxidation reaction and the formula of rust is Fe2O3. xH2O. It is very slow and once started keeps on.

Both corrosion and rusting are very harmful and cause damage to the building railway’s tracks, cars and other objects and materials wherand e metals are used. We quite often hear that an old building has collapsed on its own causing the loss of both lives and property. This is on account of the rusting of iron which is used in making the struc,ture particularly the roof.

. What is the IUPAC System [International union of pure and applied chemistry?

The IUPAC System is the International union of pure and applied chemistry.

The most important feature of this system is that any given molecular structure has only one IUPAC name which denotes only one molecular structure. 

Salient features of the IUPAC system

1. A given compound can be assigned only one name. 

2. A given name rly direct in writing of one and only one molecular structure. 

3. The system can be applied in naming complex organic compounds. 

4. The system can be applied in naming multifunctional organic compounds. 

5. This is a simple, systematic and scientific method of nomenclature of organic compounds.